Studies by Milton Leitenberg
Senior Research Scholar
Center for International and Security Studies
University of Maryland, College Park

Studies on War, Conflict, Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention



1. A Bibliography on Counterinsurgency, with coverage of sources from 1900 to mid-1973 (1975)

2. A Survey of Studies of Post WW2 Wars, Conflicts and Military Coups (1977; 1991-93); 1977 at Cornell University, with the assistance of Robert Kalish and Dolores Lombardi; and 1991-93 at University of Maryland, with the assistance of Todd Perry

3. "Research on War & Conflicts: Methodological Considerations," in UNESCO Yearbook on Peace & Conflict Studies, 1982, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983, pp. 151-163.

4. The Impact of the Worldwide Confrontation of the Great Powers: Aspects of Military Intervention and the Projection of Military Power (1985)

5. Humanitarian Intervention and Other International Initiatives to Enforce Peace (1993) [MacArthur Fndn study]

6. "The Case of Rwanda: US and UN Actions Result in Escalation of Genocide and Higher Costs," in Contemporary Genocides: Causes, Cases, Consequences, ed A.J. Jongman, PIOOM Institute, University of Leiden, 1996.

7. "Rwanda and Burundi Genocide: A Case Study of Neglect and Indifference." (1996)

8. "Epilogue to Rwanda and Burundi Genocide: A Case Study of Neglect and Indifference." (1996)

9. "Media and Genocide: Are Public Media Useful for Early Warning or Creating Political Will for Early Response" in Proceedings of the International Conference on 'Violent Crime and Conflict: Towards Early Warning and Prevention Mechanisms', Milan:ISPAC, 1998.

10. Deaths in Wars and Conflicts in the 20th Century, Occasional Paper, Cornell University Peace Studies Program. (2006)

11. "Beyond the 'Never Agains'," Asian Perspective, vol 30, no 3, 2006, pp. 159-165 [epilogue to Cornell monograph, Deaths in Wars and Conflicts in the 20th Century].

12. Genocide in Darfur: 2003 to 2006. (2006)

Short items

1. "US Foreign Assistance Priorities -- and Israel" (1989)

2. "Anatomy of a Massacre," NYT op-ed on Rwanda (July 1994)

3. "The War, Denials and the Future," Japan Times op-ed [Japanese atrocities during WWII] (April 28-May 4, 1997) (Attachment 1, Attachment 2, Attachment 3)

4. "Memorandum for the Conflict Prevention Project, The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars" (undated [probably 2001-2002])


by Milton Leitenberg

Links are provided above to 12 works prepared between 1975 and 2006 that concern wars, conflicts and humanitarian interventions. Half were published and half were not. Four of the six major, and longer, studies are unpublished, including a manuscript of 160 pages written under a MacArthur Foundation writing grant in 1992. That manuscript (item #6) spawned several publications specific to the genocides in Burundi and Rwanda: items # 7, 8, 9 and 12 as well as the second of the short items. Altogether these 12 works comprise over 950 pages of text.

Two published bibliographic volumes are not included: The Vietnam Conflict, Its Geographical Dimensions, Political Traumas and Military Developments, ABC-CLIO, 1973, and The Wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, 1945-1982, ABC-CLIO, 1984. Both books were co-authored with Richard Dean Burns.

The 1975 bibliography on counterinsurgency, although unpublished, was supplied to between 20 and 30 research and teaching institutions and libraries.

The short version of The Impact of the Worldwide Confrontation of the Great Powers: Aspects of Military Intervention and the Projection of Military Power was first prepared for a conference held on October 28-30, 1982, co-sponsored by UNESCO and the Association Henri Laugier and held in Paris, France. It was subsequently published in Armament, Development, Human Rights, Disarmament, edited by Georges Fischer, Faculty of Law, Paris V, and the Etablissements Bruyland, Brussels, May 1985, pages 406-459.

The third of the short items, the guest column published by the Japan Times in 1997, deserves a special comment. After some hesitation -- the Japan Times asked for corroboration of my credentials by several Japanese academics -- the newspaper agreed to print what I had submitted for publication. I then requested that the paper accompany my text with several photographs which had been taken by Japanese military photographers showing Japanese atrocities in China during World War II. I supplied the photographs and their published sources, which you can see in the third attachment in the last short item listed in the Table of Contents. When a copy of the Japan Times which included my column reached me I was astonished to see that the column was accompanied by three photographs which had no relation whatsoever to Japanese atrocities in China during World War II. None of the photographs that I had supplied had been used. Instead, the Japan Times published one photograph taken during the Japanese occupation of Korea, but probably well before 1930, and two others taken in China during the Warlord period of 1916-1928. That included the one showing a scene in Nanjing, the city where the notorious Japanese Nanjing massacre took place in 1937- 38. No Japanese appear in either of the photographs taken in China. (See the second attachment in the third short item listed in the Table of Contents above.) Many years later I came upon the photograph of the beheading in a historical publication. All three photographs are real, but their selection and placement to accompany my text by the Japan Times had to be deliberate and fraudulent. I wrote a letter to the editor of the paper demanding a correction but I never received any reply and the Japan Times never published the letter. I then wrote a memorandum describing this history in some detail. It is in the third attachment to the third short item..
Updated December 20, 2023