Big Bullets for Beginners



Gunnery Department

Fort Sill, Oklahoma



INSTRUCTIONAL UNIT: Artillery Ammunition.


1-266--68 Recognize and identify complete rounds (Primer, Propellant, Projectile, and Fuze) of artillery ammunition and their appropriate handling procedures.

TYPE: Conference, demonstration, and practical exercise.

TIME ALLOTTED: 4 periods lecture

2 periods Hands-on/practical exercise


TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS: GC2AA LP, FM 6-5, ST 6-5-19, Ovation, screen, ST 6-5-2, TM 43-1-28.


PERSONNEL: Two primary instructors and one assistant instructor for lecture. One instructor per 1 students during PE.


ROLLOUTS: 15mm and Copperhead.


INERT FUZES: M557, M739A1, M563, M564, M565, M582, M577 (with spotting charge), M728, M732.


15mm: Complete dummy HE round in fiber tube & 1 other fiber tube in shipping crate.

155mm: M3A1 w/canister, M4A2 w/canister, M119A1, M119A2, M23, M23A1.



MISCELLANEOUS: HE fragmentation (Comp B and TNT), RAP fragmentation, long pointer, remote control for ovation, suppl charge demo, M82 & MK2A4 primers, eyebolt lifting plug, Ovation slides.

REFERENCES: FM 6-5, TM 43-1-28, ST 6-5-19,

ST 6-5-2.

STUDY ASSIGNMENT: FM 6-5, chapter 1; ST 6-5-19, chapter 3; and ST

6-5-2, chapter 7.


Uniform-- Seasonal

Equipment-- None



ADVANCE ARRANGEMENTS: Ensure training aids are set up. Initially, 15mm rollaway has rounds set up with the non-cutaway portion facing the students. Semi-fixed and separate loading ammo are set-up IAW the below diagram. Ensure ovation is operational, and VIP table is set up in the rear of the room.


INSTRUCTOR NOTE: See classroom layout pg. 3.

** Training Aids Table: Place primers, propellants, fragmentation, bomblets and mines in the order of presentation.

** 155mm Projectiles/Canisters: Start on the far right of the CPH rollaway, and place the demos in the order they will be discussed, from right to left.



Attention, Need-to-Know, Objective.......................... 5 Min

Primers, Propellants, and Powder Burning.................... 55 Min

Break..................................................... 1 Min

Projectiles................................................. 5 Min

Break/Stretch out ........................................ 5 Min

Projectiles................................................. 35 Min Break..................................................... 1 Min

Fuzes....................................................... 5 Min

Summary/Homework.......................................... 1 Min

The Hands-on instruction consists of four stations with 1 min. of instructions at each station. Station one is hands-on with fuzes, station two is Ammo compatibility in XO’s HB, station three is two step deflection with howitzer and station four with DA Form 4513 (Bay 7).







(Slide #1) The Field Artillery has the proud reputation of being the number one casualty producer on the modern battlefield. This distinction has earned us the grand name of "The King of Battle". The Field Artillery is so powerful due to the wide variety of ammunition available for us to perform our mission.

(Slide #2) The mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy by cannon, rocket, and missile fire and to help integrate all fire support assets into combined arms operations.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The mission statement is found in the FM 6-2, pg. 2-8. ALL GOOD ARTILLERYMEN (especially Gunnery Instructors) should have the mission statement memorized!!!

(Slide #3) Ammunition will not cause the desired effects on the target unless the proper shell/fuze combination is selected and assembled. It is necessary that all Field Artillery officers understand the different types of propellants, projectiles, fuzes, and their proper use, so that we can supervise our subordinates.

(Slide #4) Only through training and proper supervision can we maintain our casualty producing efficiency, thereby delivering the firepower at the decisive time and place on the battlefield. This class will teach you the basics of using artillery ammunition safely and properly.


a. TASK 1-266.1-68: Given the components of a complete round of artillery ammunition, associated equipment, and ST 6-5-2, recognize and identify different authorized artillery ammunition combinations and their appropriate handling procedures. (KNOW)


a. Differentiate between semi-fixed and separate loading ammunition.

b. Identify the four components of a complete round of ammunition.

(1). Identify and recognize primers.

(2). Identify and recognize propellants and their

preparation for firing.

(3). Identify and recognize projectiles.

(4). Identify and recognize fuzes and associated


c. Identify proper shell/fuze combinations.

d. Identify proper propellant/projectile combinations.

e. Recognize complete rounds of artillery ammunition and their appropriate handling procedures.

f. Inspect heading and standard data (DA Form 4513; Hands-on.)

g. Inspect ammunition/fuze on hand (DA Form 4513; Hands-on).

h. Inspect written fire commands and ammo expended (DA Form 4513; Hands-on.)





Safety precautions have been reviewed and are not applicable.


Section II


1. The references that apply to artillery ammunition are TM 43-1-28, the technical manual for the howitzer system (-1), FM 6-5 (chapter 1), ST 6-5-2 (chapter 7), and ST 6-5-19 (chapter 3).

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show the students each reference as you discuss its purpose and use. Tell the students that the sequence of class will follow the student outline.

2. (Slide #5) The four components of a complete round of artillery ammunition are: (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-1)

Primer. When the firing pin strikes the primer, it ignites the propellant.

Propellant. The rapid expansion of gases caused by the burning propellant propels the projectile from the tube toward the target.

Projectile. The projectile carries the destructive elements which causes the desired effects in the target area.

Fuze. The fuze initiates an explosive train in the projectile causing the projectile to produce the desired effects.


(Slide #6) Artillery ammunition can be classified in many ways. One classification is based on the manner in which the components are assembled for loading and firing. Complete rounds of artillery ammunition are known as either semi-fixed or separate loading. An M16 round is a type of FIXED ammunition (you cannot adjust the amount of propellant in the cartridge case).

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Remove one 15mm fiber from the wooden crate. Place the 15mm fiber on the table, with the "heavy end" (projectile) placed on the table first. Remember, the demo canister is actually heavier than the demo projectile!

Semi-fixed ammunition is used in 15mm howitzers. The ammunition is shipped in a wooden crate, with two fiber tubes in each crate. The fiber tubes are sealed at each end with tape. Upon removing the tape, the cannoneer will place the heavy end down first, and remove the projectile from the fiber tube. Next, the cartridge case is removed. Both the projectile and canister MUST REMAIN in their fiber cups until firing.

Semi-fixed ammunition is characterized by an adjustable propelling charge. The propellant is divided into increments, or charges, and each increment of propellant is contained in a cloth bag. All of the cloth bags are held together by an acrylic cord, and are stored in the cartridge case. The primer is an integral part of the cartridge case, and is located on the base. Semi-fixed ammunition may be issued fuzed or unfuzed.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Not all 15mm is semi-fixed; For example, the HEAT-T (M622) is fixed. (TM 43-1-28 pg. 3-29)

Separate loading ammunition has four separate components: primer, propellant, projectile, and fuze. The four components are issued separately. Upon preparation for firing, the projectile and propellant are loaded into the howitzer in two separate operations. Separate loading ammunition is used in 155mm howitzers.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: As you discuss separate loading ammunition, show the students each of the separate items and place them on the center table for the students to view.

4. EXPLOSIVE TRAINS (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-4)

Artillery ammunition does not perform its intended purpose while it is stored in the battery area. We must deliver the proper ammunition from the cannon to the target area. This is accomplished through the use of an explosive train.

(Slide #7) An explosive train is a designed arrangement of a series of explosives beginning with a small quantity of sensitive explosive and progressing through a relatively large quantity of comparatively insensitive, though powerful, explosive.

(Slide #8) There are two explosive trains in each conventional round of artillery ammunition: the PROPELLING CHARGE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN, and the PROJECTILE EXPLOSIVE TRAIN. The projectile reaches the target area by the power obtained from the propelling charge explosive train. The function of the projectile in the target area depends on the type of projectile explosive train. We will first discuss the propelling charge explosive train.


(Slide #9) An explosive train The propelling charge explosive train consists of the primer, ignite, and propellant. We will now discuss each of these components in greater detail, beginning with the primer.

6. PRIMER (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-5; FM 6-5 pg. 1-5)

(Slide #1) The propelling charge explosive train is initiated by the primer, which is a small amount of very sensitive explosive. The primer is very sensitive to shock, friction, spark, and heat, and must be kept protected and away from other ammunition components.

(Slide #11) In semi-fixed ammunition, the primer is located in the center of the base of the canister which holds the propellant.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show the students the demo 15MM canister.

When inspecting the primer, ensure it is flush with the base of the canister. If it were raised from the base of the canister, it could interfere with the closing of the breech, and may cause premature ignition of the explosive train. If the primer were indented from the base of the canister, the firing pin may not be able to properly strike the primer. Inspect the primer for pits, rust, or corrosion on the base of the projectile canister. Normal brown oxidation is acceptable. However, if any other discoloration is found the canister should be rejected. Finally, inspect to ensure that the primer has not been previously fired.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer students to inspection criteria/Serviceability of ammunition in XO’S Handbook

pg. 7-9.

In separate loading ammunition, the primer is a separate item of issue.

(Slide #12) The M82 primer consists of a brass case, a base, and is sealed on the end with a wax substance. It is used on all 155mm except the M114A1/A2; The M114A1/A2 howitzer’s have been phased out of the U.S. inventory (-28 pg. 8-61)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display primer to the students.

(Slide #13) The MK2A4 primer consists of a brass case, a base, and is also sealed on the end with a wax substance. It is used only with the M114A1/A2 howitzer (-28 pg. 8-57)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display primer to the students.

Inspection criteria for the M82 and the MK2A4 include checking the primer for rust, pits and corrosion. Normal brown oxidation is acceptable. Ensure the primer has not been fired and the end is sealed to keep the black powder in the primer.

(Slide #14) The MK2A4 primer will fit in all 155mm howitzers, but will not obtain a proper seat in the primer vent, and is a safety hazard. The MK2A4 is issued in the propellant canisters with older propellants (e.g. M3 green bag). Do not fire the MK2A4 primer except with the M114 series howitzer.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The M82 primer is a cylindrical brass case with an extraction flange base, and a container loaded with 22 grains of black powder. The MK2A4 primer is a brass case with an extraction flange base containing a charge of 19 grains of black powder.

7. IGNITER (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-5)

(Slide #15) The igniter provides hot flaming gases and particles to ignite the propelling charge. The igniter consists of black powder or Clean Burning Igniter (CBI). The igniter is very hygroscopic and subject to rapid deterioration on absorption of moisture. If kept dry, however, it retains its explosive properties indefinitely.

(Slide #16) The igniter for semi-fixed ammunition is an integral part of the primer. It consists of a perforated tube filled with black powder and is permanently mounted in the cartridge case.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show the students the demo 15MM Canister and refer them back to the inspection criteria in XO’S Handbook, pg. 7-9.

Inspection criteria: Ensure that the igniter tube is centered in the cartridge case; not loose, bent, or broken; and that the holes are sealed to keep the filler inside the igniter tube. Light brown oxidation is acceptable.

(Slide #17) In separate loading ammunition, the igniter is in a circular red pancake shaped bag sewn to the base increment of the propellant.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display red igniter to the students and refer them to inspection criteria in XO’S Handbook.

Inspection criteria: Check for rips or tears, is it properly sewn to the base increment, and are there lumps caused by moisture. If any of these conditions exist, the charge should be rejected. It should have a sandy, gritty feeling.

8. PROPELLANTS (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-5; FM 6-5 pg. 1-4; TM-43-1-28)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The minimum information presented to students is caliber, number of increments, type of propellant (single, multi-perforated, or slotted-stick), and any safety restrictions that apply for that particular propellant/weapon combination.

(Slide #18) A propellant is a large amount of insensitive but powerful explosive that propels the projectile to the target.

(Slide #19) Powder grain forms (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-6). Strip grain is used with Mortars and cord is used with Engineer’s, and neither are used by the Field Artillery. As single-perforated grain burns the outer surface decreases and the inner surface increases. As a result, the interior diameter of the perforation can be controlled so that the total burning surface remains nearly constant until the powder grain has been consumed (This type of burning is called neutral burning.) As multi-perforated grain burns the total surface area increases because the perforated grain burns from the inside and outside at the same time, with the inside of the grains surface area increasing faster due to the 7 interior holes. (This type of burning is called progressive burning.)

(Slide #2) Semi-fixed ammunition propellant is generally issued with seven increments numbered 1 through 7, and connected by a thin acrylic cord. Each increment is a different size because each increment has a different premeasured amount of propellant. Increment 1 + 2 are single perforated and increments 3-7 are multi-perforated.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Display the increments to the students and refer students to inspection criteria in XO’s Handbook.

Inspection: Remove the seven increments to ensure all are present and are in proper numerical order. Check the increments for rips, tears, lumps, or any discoloration caused by moisture. Charge 5 includes a layer of lead foil which acts as a decoppering agent to prevent copper build-up in the tube during firing. Feel and smell the propellant; a urine-like smell or lumpiness indicates moisture in the propellant.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: After inspecting show how to repack the M67 canister with 15 propellant. Show how to cut a charge and repack the propellant into the canister in the proper numerical sequence using a "washing machine fashion." The additional increment(s) remain outside the cartridge case until the section chief verifies the correct charge to be fired. Explain briefly what happens during firing with additional increments.

(Slide #21) M2: The M2 propellant is a single increment, charge 8 (4.25 LB of multi-perforated propellant). It is fired with the M119 howitzer only and can be fired with the M760 (TNT) filled projectile, as well as the M915 DPICM projectile.

(Slide #22) M176: The M176 propellant is 5 increments, charges 3-7. It was developed to be fired with the M548 RAP projectile. The M176 provides an "Low-End" charge for firing RAP.

(Slide #23) M229: The M229 propellant is the same propellant as the M2 propellant, but has a donut shaped flash reducer. It is fired with the M119 howitzer only and was developed to be fired with the M913 RAP projectile. The design of the flash reducer precludes nonignition of the rocket motor for RAP. The M229 provides an "High-End" charge for firing RAP.

Separate loading ammunition propellants are issued as a separate unit of issue in sealed canisters to protect the propellant. Discuss the inspection of the canister. Explain that the canister should be sealed.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show key information on exterior of canister (prop type & lot).


(Slide #24) Green Bag, M3A1: Propellant is designed for firing charges 1 through 5. The propellant is fastened together with four cloth straps sewn to the base and hand tied on top of increment 5. The igniter pad (3.5 oz. CBI) is located on the base increment. The entire M3A1 propellant contains approximately 5.5 pounds of single perforated; neutral burning powder. There are flash reducers; containing potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate, that are sewn forward of charges 1 (2 oz. pad), 4 and 5 (1 oz. pad each) Explain that each increment varies in size and also explain the purpose and function of flash reducers. The flash reducers limit breech flare back, muzzle flash, and blast over-pressure.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students and cut a charge, twist the tie ends, and tuck under as you would a loaf of bread. Discuss procedures and commands used to load propellant into tube; I.E., I see red, close, prime. (-28 pg. 8-5)

(Slide #25) White Bag, M4A2: This propellant is designed for charges 3 through 7. Their basic configuration is the same as GB propellant. The M4A2 contains approximately 13 lbs. of multi-perforated, (Progressive burn) propellant. A flash reducer pad containing one ounce of potassium nitrate or potassium sulfate is sewn to the base increment. (-28 pg. 8-7)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students.

(Slide #26) Charge 8WB, M119: This single increment, multiperforated, white bag charge with a perforated igniter core tube extending through the center of the propellant with a flash reducer sewn to the forward end. It can only be used in the long tube 155mm howitzers (M19A2-A6 series and the M198). STORE HORIZONTALLY due to the central, perforated igniter core tube. Cannot fire rocket assisted projectiles using M119 due to the design of the flash reducer.

Charge 8WB, M119A1: Almost the same as the M119 except for the donut shaped flash reducer sewn to the forward end, new molded center core igniter tube, and a 360 degree basic igniter seam lacing jacket. This design of the flash reducer precludes nonignition of the rocket motor for RAP.(-28 pg. 8-9)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students.

(Slide #27) Charge 7RB, M119A2: It is a single increment 7 red bag charge for firing in 155mm howitzers that have the M185, and M199 cannon tubes. The forward end of the charge has a 3 ounce lead foil liner and four pockets sewn longitudinally to the circumference. Each of the four pockets contains 4 oz of potassium sulfate to act as a flash reducer. Charge 7RB can be used interchangeably with charge 8WB with a minor difference in muzzle velocity. The M119A2 was created to correspond with existing NATO firing tables. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-7; -28 pg. 8-11)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students.

(Slide #28) M23: Propellant is a zone 8S charge designed to provide extended range for the M198, M19A5/A6 howitzers. The M23 propellant charge is a single increment, red bag charge with a central igniter core extending through its entire length and a donut-shaped flash reducer at the forward end of the charge. The M23 is used only with the M549A1 (TNT loaded) RAP, and the M864 base burn projectiles. STORE HORIZONTALLY. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-8;-28 pg. 8-13)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students. Once fielded the M795 projectile will be authorized to fire with the M23/A1 propellant. Currently, the M23 propellant is not authorized to fire with the M825/M825A1 projectile, due to the cannister cracking and leaving a WP trail from the firing position to the target.

(Slide #29) M23A1: Propellant. Also a single increment base ignited charge. The outer casing is a solid combustible material. There is still an igniter pad at the base of the propellant, and it contains .7 ounces of black powder and 1. ounce of CBI. The propellant is not granules, but 28 pounds of slotted, stick propellant. The M23A1 charge is fired only with the M549A1 (TNT loaded), RAP, and M864 projectiles in the M198 and M19A5/A6 howitzers. The reasons for design of the M23A1 propelling charge are: 1) cooler burning, less flash, blast, and tube wear. 2) Casing form is more durable causing for less igniter core damage. 3) For automatic loading systems-allows fewer mechanical problems. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-8;-28 pg. 8-15)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display propellant to the students. The M23A1 charge problem with M825 is being worked and the safety restriction is scheduled to be lifted in FY97.

Inspection Criteria: Check to make sure all increment bags are present. Inspect the bags for rips, tears, caking and discoloration. Propellants should not have a urine like smell. If it does it may contain a high moisture content. If any of these conditions exist, the charge should not be fired.

9. POWDER BURNING (FM 6-5 pg. 1-5)

Discuss the proper procedures to dispose of unused powder increments by burning. Discuss use of the powder pit.

Procedures for burning unused increments:

(Slide #3) Select burn site at least 2 feet from grass and loose debris as well as personnel and equipment (Follow Local range Regulations.)

(Slide #31) Have fire fighting equipment and extra water available to control fires.

(Slide #32) Determine the direction of the wind.


(Slide #33) Place charge increments in a single layer row not more than 1-increment high and 12 inches wide and arrange the row so that the powder will burn into the wind.

(Slide #34) Establish a powder train at least 15 feet long, perpendicular to, and at the downwind end of the row of increments. Light the train at the end farthest from the increments.

(Slide #35) Powder Burning

(Slide #36) Proper clean-up of powder burning area is essential to avoid ashes prom starting forest fires.

(Slide #37) Layout for Powder burning.

(Slide #38) BREAK

1. PROJECTILES (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-11; FM 6-5 pg. 1-3; -28)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The minimum information is weapon system used on, explosive train, type of target used on, and any special remarks for that particular projectile.

The next component of a complete round of ammunition is the projectile. Before we discuss specific projectiles, let's discuss functioning. There are three types of projectile explosive trains.

(Slide #39) The Projectile Explosive Train is designed to cause a projectile to perform its intended purpose upon reaching the target area. The three types are: (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-1)

(Slide #4) Types of Projectile Explosive Trains:

The Bursting Charge explosive train consists of a FUZE, BOOSTER, and BURSTING CHARGE. It is commonly used in High Explosive rounds.

The Bursting Tube explosive train consists of a FUZE, BOOSTER and a small burster TUBE. It is commonly used in chemical and white phosphorous projectiles.

The Expelling Charge explosive train consists of a FUZE and an EXPELLING CHARGE. It is used for projectiles carrying a payload that is expelled from the projectile in flight.

(Slide #41) PROJECTILE FAMILIES: To give the students a better understanding of the different types of projectiles, explain that projectiles are also categorized by family. A projectile family has ballistic similitude (the same characteristics). I.E. the same mass, external shape, surface finish, center of gravity, driving band (rotating band), and transverse and longitudinal moments of inertia. 15mm has two families; HE and RAP. 155mm has five families; HE, RAP, ICM (New head of ICM family will be M795 HE projectile after fielding begins in FY98), COPPERHEAD, and BASE BURN DPICM.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Refer students to Phase II Workbook pg. 34



WEAPON SYSTEMS: 15 and 155mm


REMARKS: 15mm: Max Range: M119-11,5 meters.

155mm: Max ranges: M198 and M19-18,1 meters.

(Slide #42) HE, M1: Filler is TNT or Composition B. (-28 pg. 3-9)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Discuss differences between TNT and Comp B, show HE fragmentation, composition B provides 4% more fragmentation. High charges = high pressure/stress on filler. Comp B may prematurely function if exposed to excessive pressure.

(Slide #43) HE, M76: This projectile is only certified for firing from the M119 howitzer. M76 achieves the same results as the M1. It is loaded with 4.6 pounds of TNT. Shipped with the M2 propelling charge. Composition B is not used because it is to sensitive. (-28 pg. 3-73)

(Slide #44) HE, M17: Filled with TNT or Composition B. (-28 pg. 3-77)

(Slide #45) Most He projectiles issued for use with proximity VT fuzes are standard projectiles with deep fuze cavities to accommodate the longer VT fuze. Each of these projectiles is issued with a supplementary charge so that the projectile may be used with an impact, a mechanical time or a long intrusion (VT) fuze. The supplementary charge is removed only when the projectile is used with a long intrusion VT fuze. It must be in place when the projectile is used with a mechanical time fuze, impact fuze, or short intrusion fuze. Remove the supplementary charge by the lifting loop only.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show studs how to remove supplementary charge using demo.





REMARKS: 155mm: Max ranges: M19A2/A3- 17,7 meters. M198 & M15/A6- 22,5 meters.

(Slide #46) HE M795: (-28 pg. 3-155)

The M795 high-explosive projectile has been developed to replace the standard M17 HE shell. It will initially supplement and eventually replace the standard M17 HE shell for 155mm weapons. It will provide increased effectiveness as well as greater range capabilities. This increased range is obtained through compatibility with the M23A1 propelling charge. This new projectile has increased fragmentation from high fragmenting steel. The M795 is ballistically similar to M483A1 projectiles and will head the family. In addition, it will provide a low cost registration round for the new family. The M795 projectile is 197s technology that is just recently finding its way into production. It will be fielded in FY98.



WEAPON SYSTEM: 15 and 155mm

USES/TARGETS: LONG RANGE engagement of personnel and material.

REMARKS: 15mm: Max ranges: M548 fired with M119-15,1 meters. M913 fired with M229-19,5 meters.

155mm: Max ranges: M19-23,5; M198-3, meters.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: The M913 is fired with M229 propellant-19,5 meters. RAP has two distinct advantages over normal HE: 1) Increased range and fragmentation. The inside of the projectile is scored which provides the increased fragmentation (more pieces, smaller size). The rocket motor provides increased range.

(Slide #47) HERA, M548: Currently, fired from M119 cannon only (Used to be fired from M12 before it was phased out). Produced in limited quantity and is found in war time reserve. The canister contains the M176 propellant, charges 3 through 7. Charge 7 can be fired in the rocket on or off mode (There are TFTs for both on and off for selected charges); charges 3 through 5 are authorized for the rocket off mode in a combat emergency only. (-28 pg. 3-61)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show RAP rocket motor cap and the smaller RAP fragments, discuss motor burn time, and the safety zone needed if motor does not work. 15mm: 16 SEC Rocket Motor delay & 2 SEC burn time. A 6 meter safety zone short of the target is required in case of non-ignition of the rocket motor.

(Slide #48) M913: Fired from the M119 cannon and other upgraded 15mm howitzers only. The M913 uses the M229 (charge 8) maximum propelling charge coupled with a modern rocket motor designed to survive a high "g’ and high spin environment to obtain a 7% increase in range over the M1. The rocket motor functions approximately 15.5 seconds after leaving the tube (maximizing range extension). With rocket-on, the M913 provides a maximum range of over 19.5 km (M119 QE limitations with charge 8 keep Max Rg at 19.5 km). The High fragmentation steel body provides an 8% increase in lethality over the older M1 Cartridge. The warhead contains 2.63 kg of TNT explosive fill. The M913 is currently in production and initial operational capability will be in 2QFY97.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: A direct variant of the M913, designated the M927, uses a reduced propelling charge (M67- charge 7), and is compatible with all U.S. howitzers, including the M11A1, M12, as well as the M119A1. It is the same projectile as the M913, but with a "Low-End" charge. The U.S. is currently not going to purchase the M927 because it already has a "low-End" 15mm RAP round with the M548 and is looking for a foreign buyer.

(Slide #49) HERA, M549A1: The earlier models (M549) were filled with Comp B. The M549A1 is filled with TNT. Composition B is unstable when fired with higher charges. When fired from an M198 or M19A5/A6, RAP achieves a range of 3 Km. The propellant gases ignite the delay, which burns for 7 seconds and then sets off the rocket motor for approx. 3 seconds. The M549 projectile is only fired in the rocket-on mode. The M549 cannot be fired with the M23 propelling charge due to the unstable Composition B. (-28 pg. 3-119)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Again, mention the 6 meter safety zone short of the target is required in case of non-ignition of the rocket motor.


EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Bursting charge.



REMARKS: Max ranges: M19A1/A3-16,; M198 & M19A5/A6-16,4 meters.

(Slides 5-53) Copperhead, M712:

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Display M712 and point to the "rollout" during your discussion.

This is a 155mm, laser-guided, High Explosive projectile utilizing a shaped charge warhead. It is loaded and fired the same as other projectiles except that it is much longer and is fin stabilized instead of spin stabilized. The projectile has three sections: guidance, warhead, and control sections. It is NOT certified for the M23 or M23A1 Super Charges due to the composition B filler. The projectile is shipped in a container and weighs 138 lbs. The Copperhead trainer, used for section training, is bronze in color. The actual projectile is black.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: After discussing generalities of the projectile break down your discussion starting with:

Control Section - The control section contains a battery, high pressure gas bottle, four fins and four wings. The fins are folded into recesses of the projectile and are extended in flight after the round clears the tube by centrifugal force. The wings are electronically extended once the projectile reaches the summit of the trajectory. The design of the nylon obturating band is unique. Notice it rotates. This reduces the spin of the projectile to approximately 1 revolutions per second. This spin rate allows the fins to deploy (centrifugal force) and fin stabilize the projectile in flight.

Warhead Section - The warhead section is classified as high explosive antitank warhead. The shaped charge contains 14.75 lbs of Comp. B.

Guidance Section - The guidance section consists of two parts, the electronics assembly and the seeker head assembly. The electronics assembly contain the electronic circuits that stabilize and control the flight of the projectile. The electronics are activated by firing and by the setting on the five screwdriver set switches - the first set switch controls the flight path of the projectile (ballistic or glide). A first digit of 1 or 2 results in a ballistic trajectory, while a first digit of 3 through 8 results in a shaped trajectory. The second digit programs a time delay based on the duration of flight and type of trajectory. The program delay digits of 1 through 8 will result in a delay of to 45 seconds for ballistic mode and to 48 seconds for the shaped trajectory. After the time delay has expired, the main portion of the battery will activate, providing power to the electronic circuits and deploying the wings. The last three are for the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) code. The seeker head assembly locates the target via reflected laser energy. This energy is a result of the observer's Ground/Vehicular Laser Locator Designator, or G/VLLD; 13 seconds of reflected laser energy is necessary for the projectile to receive and decode the laser energy. Once the reflected energy is decoded the projectile will steer onto an intercept course and arm the projectile to accurately engage the target. The PRF code used by the observer and by the projectile must be the same. (-28 pg. 3-131;FM 6-4 pg. 13-9)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Transition into Bursting Tube explosive train and re-explain how a bursting tube performs its designed purpose.


EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Bursting tube

WEAPON SYSTEM: 15 and 155mm


REMARKS: 15mm: Max ranges: M119-11,5 meters.

155mm: Max ranges: M19 and M198- 18,1 meters.

(Slide #54) Smoke, WP, M6 series: WP provides a quick smoke buildup for a relatively short duration (approx. 1 min). WP burns on contact with air, producing a dense white cloud of smoke. (-28 pg. 3-15)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: WP MUST BE STORED AND TRANSPORTED ON ITS BASE. At 111 degrees (F) the WP filler melts. If the projectile is stored on its side and then allowed to cool, the projectile may be ballistically unstable. This will cause the projectile to impact short. WP is NOT compatible with VT fuzes.

(Slide #55) Smoke WP, M11 series: WP provides a quick smoke buildup for a relatively short duration (approx. 9 sec). (-28 pg. 3-85)

(Slide #56) WP effects slide: air burst and ground burst.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Transition into Expelling Charge explosive train Re-explain how a Expelling Charge performs it designed purpose.





REMARKS: Max range: M119-11,4 meters.

(Slides 57-58) APERS, M546: Designed for use against personnel under direct fire situations. Contains 8,, 8 grain flechettes. It is made of aluminum and must be protected from damage to the skin of the projectile. Uses ONLY the M563 fuze! Shipped with M563 fuze, set for muzzle action. It uses dye to mark the direct fire engagement area and is the only projectile that expels its payload forward.

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss functioning of round by pointing to the 15 rollout. (-28 pg. 3-57)


EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Expelling charge

WEAPON SYSTEM: 15 and 155mm


REMARKS: 15mm: Max Range: M119-11,5 meters.

155mm: Max Range: M19 and M198- 18,1 meters.


(Slide #59) Smoke, HC, M84: There are 3 smoke canisters that are ejected above the smoke screen aimpoint. The smoke canister burns for 4-9 seconds and, depending on the weather, can provide a screen up to three minutes. Smoke is available in white, red, yellow, and green. (-28 pg. 3-25)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss functioning of round by pointing to the 15 rollout.

(Slide #6) Smoke, HC, M116 series: If colored smoke, the color is indicated by a series of 3 C's in the color of the smoke. The 155mm projectile contains 4 smoke canisters. Provides up to four minutes of screening. This projectile is no longer in production. (-28 pg. 3-93)

INSTRUCTOR'S NOTE: Discuss how round functions.





REMARKS: 15mm: Max Range: M119-11,5 meters.

155mm: Max ranges: M19 and M198-18,1 meters.

(Slide #61) M314A3: Burns for 1 min at 45, candle power, descends @ 1m/second. Illuminates a 8m diameter circle. Ideal burn height for 15mm illum is at 75 meters above the surface. (-28 pg. 3-37)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss functioning of round by pointing to the 15 rollout. Different colors of smoke have different weights and the BCS will require the weight of the colored smoke projectile for 15mm to be entered.

(Slide #62) M485 series: Burns for 2 min at 1,, candle power, descends @ 5m/second. Illuminates a 1 Km2 area. Ideal burn height for 155mm illum is at 6 meters above the surface.(-28 pg. 3-115)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss functioning of round and differences between 15 and 155 illum projectiles. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-15)



WEAPON SYSTEM: 15 and 155mm


REMARKS: 15mm: Max Range: M119-11,5 meters.

155mm: Max ranges: M19 and M198-18,1 meters.

(Slide #63) APICM, M444: Delivers 18 (6 layers of 3 grenades) M39 antipersonnel grenades. Upon impact, the submunitions eject a grenade upward which detonates 4 to 6 feet above the ground. (-28 pg. 3-53; ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-16)

(Slide #64) M39 Submunition: The M39 is an airburst munition which is expelled from the projectile body in flight. The two vanes extend in flight to properly orient the munition and are held open by the air stream and striker plate guide rods. This action extends the striker plate and aligns the firing pin, so when the grenade impacts, the firing pin is driven into the primer which initiates the ejection charge. The ejection charge initiates the delay detonator and propels the steel ball upward to 4-6 feet above the surface. For a detailed discussion on functioning refer to the -28 pg. 8-49. This submunition has been nicknamed the "Bouncing Betty."

Instructor Note: Show students demo submunition and discuss its functioning. (-28 pg. 8-49)

(Slide #65) APICM, M449 Series: Delivers 6 (1 layers of 6 grenades), M43A1 antipersonnel grenades. The grenades are different from the 15mm, but function similarly. (-28 pg. 3-19)

(Slide #66) M43A1 Submunition: The M43A1 is an airburst munition which is expelled from the projectile body in flight. After the two vanes are extended, the firing pin retracts permitting the munition to arm. When the grenade impacts with the surface the ejection charge is initiated and steel ball is propelled upward 4-6 feet above the surface. For a detailed discussion on functioning refer to the -28 pg. 8-53. This submunition has also been nicknamed the "Bouncing Betty."

Instructor Note: Show students demo submunition and discuss its functioning (-28 pg. 8-53). Then transition to DPICM and re-mention the different family of projectile. Remember, the new M795 HE projectile will soon take over as head of the DPICM family.





REMARKS: 155mm: Max ranges: M19 and M198- 17,74 meters.

(Slide #67) DPICM, M915/M916: The M915/M916 projectiles were designed to provide the light infantry divisions with an extended range capability and enhanced lethal effectiveness against both personnel and material targets. The M915 projectile will be fired with the M2 propellant (High-End charge; same as M229 propellant, but without doughnut shaped flash reducer) with the M119A1 howitzer only. The M916 will be fired with the M67 propellant (Low-End charge) and is capable of being fired with all U.S. 15mm howitzer’s to a range of 1.5 km. Both projectiles will use 42 XM8 grenades that have a self destruct device. The XM8 submunition will self destruct within 4 minutes and will provide greater flexibility for peace time training, as well as increased flexibility to maneuver commander’s. Firing tables were made for both projectiles in April of 1997. Initial operational capability will be in FY98.

(Slide #68) XM8 Submunition: The XM8 submunition has an embossed fragmentation pattern to increase fragmentation. It uses a trumpet shaped charge similar to the M42/46 submunitions. It also has an XM234 self-destruct fuze that will cause the submunition to self destruct to reduce hazardous duds on the battlefield. Self-destruct function is 3 minutes +/- 1 minute from impact. The dud rate objective is not more than 1:1. The XM8 is scheduled to be re-designated as the M8 (non-experimental/type classified) in August, 1997.

(Slide #69) DPICM, M483A1: Delivers 88 dual purpose anti-material and anti-personnel grenades - the M42 (quantity 64/projo) and M46 (quantity 24/projo). The M46s are located at the base of the projectile and are heavier/thicker and have a smooth interior surface that enables it to withstand the shock of firing and set back. The M42 grenades are scored for greater fragmentation and are place to the front of the M46 grenades. The submissions have a shaped charge warhead that penetrates 2.75 inches of homogeneous armor. Antipersonnel effects are obtained by fragmentation of the submissions body. This projectile introduces a different family of projectiles, the ICM Family. The ICM family is approximately 3 1/2 inches longer and has a standard square weight of 13.5 lbs. This projectile has a self-registration mode with projectile spotting charge M125. The M577 fuze is the only authorized fuze. (-28 pg. 3-111)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Show students submunition demo’s and explain their functioning and concerns with the approximate 2.5% dud rate (-28 pg. 8-51,55).



WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm only.


APPROACH (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-18).

REMARKS: Max range: 17,74 meters

(Slides 7-71) Area Denial Artillery Munitions (ADAM), M692-L and M731-S: They deliver 36 antipersonnel mines that are spread by centrifugal force after ejection from the rear of the projectile. Once settled on the ground, arming takes place, and 7 trip wires, each 2 feet long, are deployed. If disturbed, a grenade is propelled upward detonating 2 to 8 feet above the ground projecting 6 1.5-grain steel fragments in all directions. In this triangle is the code (L or S) for the self-destruct time of the mines. REMEMBER: The self-destruct times are pre-set and unchangeable. Mines begin to self-destruct at 8% of laid life. (4 X .8 = 3 hours, 12 min) If projectile is coded "S" the self-destruct time is 4 hours; with an "L" the time is 48 hours. 100% of the mines self destruct by the 4 or 48 hour mark as appropriate. Regardless how the mines land (right side up or up-side down) a liquid propellant accumulates at the base (Accumulation time is approximately 2 minutes, thus arming time is 2 minutes) to detonate the shape charge and propel it upward. 2% of ADAM mines are equipped with an anti-disturbance device. ADAM is not authorized to fire with the M23 propelling charge and has a planning module size of 4 X 4. (-28 pg. 3-127,143)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Show students ADAM demos to discuss its functioning and its 4.5% dude rate.

(Slides 72-73) Remote Anti-Armor Mine (RAAM), M741A1-S and M718A1L: They deliver 9 antitank mines to delay access to a particular area for a specific time period. 2 of the mines are equipped with an anti-disturbance device. The time period is found on the projectile as an S or L in the yellow triangles (same times as for ADAM). The mines sense the magnetic signature of the vehicle as it passes over the mine. Just after the signature peaks, the mine detonates. Some mines have anti-disturbance mechanisms that discourage hand removal of the minefields (2 in each projectile). Neither the ADAM nor RAAM are certified to be fired with the M23/A1 Super Charges; both use only the M577 fuze. If the mines are upside down or angled at more than 3 degrees the effects may be reduced from a lethality kill to a mobility kill. Normal planning area for a low angle standard minefield is 2 by 2 and for high angle is 4 X 4. (-28 pg. 3-139,151)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Show students demo and discuss its functioning and 4.5% dude rate.


EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Expelling charge and bursting tube.

WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm only.


REMARKS: Max range: M19A2/A3-17,74 M198 & M19A5/A6- 22,4 with the M23A1 prop. (See instructor note)

(Slides 74-75) Smoke WP, M825/M825A1: The projectile dispenses 116 WP impregnated felt wedges. It is used to produce screening smoke for 5 to 1 min duration. The concentration of smoke is thicker and longer lasting then normal HC/WP. Build up time is also quicker than HC. Upon fuze function, felt wedges are expelled from a thin walled cannister. 1 milliseconds after expulsion, the bursting tube functions, rupturing the steel canister, exposing the wedges to air and they begin to burn. Uses the M577 fuze. Don't fire if projectile has been exposed to temperatures of 11° or greater (applies to the M825 projectile only). Above 11° the WP in M825 projectiles (manufactured Jan 85-May 86) can liquify and cause instability in flight/short rounds. The M825A1 projectile contains an improved payload and a new base to correct the M825 flight instability. (-28 pg. 3-165)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Explain hazards of felt wedges once deployed. The M825A1 projectile does not have to be shipped or stored on its base; can store it horizontally. Currently, the M23/A1 propellant is not authorized to fire with the M825/M825A1 projectiles, due to the cannister cracking and leaving a WP trail from the firing position to the target. The M23 charge problem is currently being fixed and is projected to be fixed with a modified projectile in 1997.


EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: Expelling charge

WEAPON SYSTEM: 155mm only


REMARKS: Max range: M19A2/A3- 22, meters.

M198- 28,18 & M19A5/A6- 27,74 meters.

(Slides 76-77) EXTENDED RANGE DPICM (M864): The

projectile contains a total of 72 dual - purpose grenades (48-M42

and 24-M46). The base burner unit, "base burn", contains a

propellant that ignites upon firing of the projectile. The M864

achieves extended range through a solid propellant, non-

propulsive base drag reduction system. The gases expelled from

the base burner unit greatly reduce drag directly behind the

projectile. If desired, the expulsion charge may be replaced by

a spotting charge designed to detonate the entire projectile as

if it were a HE projectile. The M864 can be fired from the M198,

and M19 series howitzers. The M864 compliments the M483A1 by

providing increased range capability to 28.2 km and has an 2%

increase in area coverage over the M483A1. (-28 pg. 3-17)

INSTRUCTORS NOTE: Discuss differences between achieving increased range through a propulsive rocket motor and an non-propulsive base drag reduction system.


XM773 Multi-Option Fuze Artillery: (MOFA)- The MOFA fuze will replace the M564, M582, M557, M739, M739A1, M728, and M732 fuzes. It will have the capability of being both manually and inductively set. This will eliminate the need for carrying several types of fuze setters. It will provide a 199.9 second electronic time fuze capability , proximity functioning with selectable heights of burst, and an impact function. It will be compatible with all 15mm and 155mm bursting projectiles. A removable booster design will give compatibility with cargo projectiles under emergency conditions. In the future a MOUT penetrator may be incorporated. The current schedule is for a dual hand set & inductively set version of the MOFA to be in production by the 2QFY98, and a inductively set only version by 3QFY99.


LOW COST COMPETENT MUNITION CONCEPT: Auto Registration fuze/ Self correcting Fuze

The objective of the LCCM is to increase the effectiveness

and accuracy of all artillery projectile fire, to provide the

maneuver commander with operational flexibility (i.e. reduced

logistics burden and increased firepower). An on-board GPS auto-

registration capability provides an automated, unobserved,

accurate registration that generates firing corrections for

immediate transfer to subsequent fires. The onboard GPS translator relays signals to a receiver and the actual trajectory is calculated. The impact point is then predicted & compared to the aimpoint. A ballistic computer generates corrections for immediate transfer to subsequent fire. Follow-on phases of LCCM will provide a self-correcting range and range/deflection correction function. For a range correction the nominal trajectory is determined and then the round is fired to a range beyond the target. An on-board calculation to determine muzzle velocity and position (via GPS and/or IMU) & optimum location to activate the drag brake is performed. The drag device is deployed providing a one-dimensional accuracy enhancement in the range plane (the most significant error contributor). Thus, the dispersion area is significantly reduced. For a range & deflection correction the nominal trajectory is computed & stored on the projectile. The on-board GPS receiver establishes position and processors compute the actual trajectory. The actual end-point is predicted & compared to the aimpoint. Then Commands are generated and the maneuvering system guides projectile to the new end-point.


The XM982 Extended Range DPICM will significantly enhance

the range, lethality, accuracy, and survivability of current and

future 155mm systems. The projectile will be compatible with

M19 series, M198, and Crusader. The extended range objectives

for 155mm cannons will be 4 km cannons by incorporating a Base

Burner Assembly along with a forward rocket motor. The XM982

will maintain a lethality at 35 km equal to or greater than the

M864 DPICM Base Burner Projectile at 25 km. Due the extended

range of the XM982 and the use of the new XM8 Dual Purpose

Grenade (72), soldier survivability and fire support flexibility

are enhanced. To enhance accuracy at extended ranges,

compatibility with future LCCM technology is being designed into

the XM982 Projectile. LCCM on-board GPS auto-registration

capability provides an automated, unobserved, accurate

registration that generates firing corrections for immediate

transfer to subsequent fires. Follow-on phases of LCCM will

provide a self-correcting range and range/deflection correction

functions. The projectile will be equipped with an Integral

Timing Fuze (ITF), which will have both electro-inductive and

manual fuze set capability built into the projectile.

Installation of a separate fuze will not be required. This will

relieve obvious logistic burdens. Functioning: Ignited in the

howitzer tube, the base burner assembly reduces projectile drag.

The rocket motor (forward of the submunitions) ignites

approximately 15 seconds after firing for 2 seconds, further

boosting projectile range. Four XM982 were successfully tested

in early 1997. The plan is for the XM982 to be in full scale

production by FY5.

155mm: Sense and Destroy Armor: (XM898 SADARM)

SADARM artillery munitions are identified for full scale

development using the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) and

the 155mm Howitzer. SADARM, whether delivered by projectile or

rocket, will dispense submunitions over a designated target.

The submunitions orient, stabilize and descend by parachute over

the target area. When a target is identified within the

submunition scan area by millimeter wave or infrared sensor, an

explosively formed penetrator is fired from the submunition into

the target. These munitions are primarily employed against

counterfire targets. Additionally, they will have a

supplementary role against other targets in close support, attack

in depth, and suppression of enemy air defense.

11. (Slides 78) PARTS OF A PROJECTILE: (FM 6-5 pg. 1-1)

The Eyebolt Lifting Plug in 155mm projectiles, keeps the fuze well clean, dry, free of foreign material, and damage.

The Ogive is the curved portion of the projectile. It gives the projectile it's aerodynamic shape. The square weight is marked on the Ogive.

The Bourrelet is slightly larger than the body of the projectile and centers the projectile in the tube when resting on the lands of the tube.

The Body is slightly smaller than the bourrelet to reduce friction on the tube and contains most of the projectile filler.

The Rotating Band is made of soft metal and engages the forcing cone of the tube to provide forward obturation. The rotating band imparts spin and prevents the escape of hot propelling gases past the projectile (forward obturation).

The Obturator Band of HERA and Illumination projectiles assists in forward obturation.

The Base of the projectile is a boat-tail shape that streamlines the base and gives the projectile stability during flight. (Except 15mm Illum).

The Base Cover is a metal cover that is crimped, caulked, pinned, welded, or screwed to the base of the projectile to prevent the hot gases of the propelling charge from contacting the fillers within the projectile.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Discuss projectile markings (i.e. where the square weight, Lot#, DODAC # are located and color of projo’s (smoke projo’s green vis. olive drab) etc. (FM 6-5 pg. 1-2,3)) Then transition into inspection criteria.


Inspect projectiles for rust, nicks, burrs, ensure the fuze well is clean and the threads are not stripped. Ensure the projectile filler is not seeping through the fuze well. Ensure that the projectile has the proper markings on it. Also, it is extremely important to ensure the rotating band is secure on the projectile and that there are no cuts, dents, or excessive rust on the band.

(Slides 78) Ammo storage hazards:

-Care must be taken to protect ammunition from weather such

as rain, snow, ice, etc.

-Ammunition needs to be protected from enemy fire as much as

possible. Dig ammo in and store ammunition in separate stacks to

decrease the chance of all the ammunition being destroyed by a

single enemy attack.

-proper procedures for the handling of artillery ammunition is important so ammunition and personnel are not damaged. Always bend your knees before picking up a projectile. Back problems in the Field Artillery are second only to hearing loss. Never carry a projectile with one hand on the fuze! Do not allow ammunition personnel to off-load ammo by throwing it off the back end of a vehicle.

-Smoking is not allowed within 1 feet (or as determined by

Local Range Regulations) of artillery weapons and ammunition.

(Slides 79) Example: Poor storage area: Point out all the

problems on this slide. (Look For: Projectiles fuzed and NOT

stored upright, not protected from the elements, unused

propellant increments stored at the same location,

comm/electrical gear near ammo, etc.)

(Slides 8) Example: Proper storage area

(Slides 81) BREAK

13. FUZES (ST 6-5-19 Sect IV pg 3-2)

(Slides 82) The purpose of the fuze is to initiate the projectile explosive train. Artillery fuzes are classified according to their methods of functioning. There are three types.

The Impact fuze is designed to cause the projectile to function upon impact with the ground/target.

The Mechanical Time fuze functions at a preset time.

The Mechanical Time Super-Quick fuzes are backed up by an impact superquick action, in case the fuze does not function on the time setting.

The Proximity or variable time fuzes cause the projectile to function at a uniform height above the ground.

The Electronic Time fuze contains an electronic time system to cause the fuze to function on impact or at the preset time.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: On each fuze describe the characteristics and projectile compatibility. Describe fuze setting scales in terms of graduations, labeling, min, and max fuze settings and the type of projectile explosive train that the fuze initiates. BUILD THE NEED for fuze wrenches and setters.


(Slides 83) M557 point detonating fuze is a selective super-quick or .5 second delay impact fuze. The M557 fuze is placed on Bursting Charge & Bursting Tube type projectiles (HE, HERA, M84 Practice, and WP M11). Should not be used during HEAVY rain (note firing pin location). (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-21; -28 pg. 7-73)

(Slides 84) Delay Switch

(Slides 85) M18 Fuze Wrench: Show the M18 Fuze Wrench and how the screwdriver tip is used to set the fuze for delay. Also point out that this is the fuze wrench used to seat all fuzes.

(Slides 86) The M739/A1 point detonating fuze is a selective super-quick or .5 second delay impact fuze. It has a rain insensitive sleeve that allows firing in heavy rain with reduced probability of premature functioning. The assembly in the nose section of the fuze consists of 5 crossbars which break up raindrops and thus reduce fuze initiation sensitivity. The M739 fuze is placed on Bursting Charge & Tube type projectiles (HE, HERA, M84 practice, and M11 WP) with the M18 fuze wrench. Chromatic (M739) or anodized green (M739A1) in color. The M739A1 has a cocked striker assembly that presents an extreme hazard to EOD personnel (-28 pg. 7-87)


(Slides 87) The M563 mechanical time (MT) fuze is used to function with the 15mm APERS projectiles ONLY. The fuze is shipped set on muzzle action, (1/2 second), and fuze settings are set using the M34 fuze setter. (-28 pg. 7-17)

(Slides 88) The M564 mechanical time/super-quick (MTSQ) fuze is used when a choice between time and super-quick action is desired. Time settings can be achieved between 2 and 1 seconds. For super-quick action, all fuzes dated prior to January 197 - must be set for 9. seconds, while fuzes dated from January 197 on should be set on "S". The M564 fuze is compatible with HE, Practice, and WP projectiles. Set the desired fuze setting with the M34 fuze setter. Bursting Charge & Tube. (-28 pg. 7-33)

(Slides 89) M34 Fuze Setter. Used to set the proper time on the M563, M564, and M565. Set the desired fuze setting with the M34 fuze setter. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-26)

(Slides 9) The M565 is a mechanical time fuze only and is mated to a number of base ejecting projectiles when a super-quick point detonating backup is not a requirement. The M565 fuze is placed on the base ejection Illumination, HC Smoke, and APICM projectiles with the M18 fuze wrench. Expelling Charge. (-28 pg. 7-19)

(Slides 91) Vernier Scale; Discuss in detail how to set a fuze setting using the vernier scale. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-26)

(Slides 92) Vernier Scale

(Slides 93) The M577 mechanical time and super-quick fuze is used with projectiles carrying payloads that are expelled during flight. The fuze contains a timing mechanism that may be set to function from 2 to 2 seconds in increments of tenths of a second. Three digital rotating dials indicate the time setting. The fuze is used with ADAM, RAAMS, Illumination, APICM, DPICM, M825 WP, and HC Smoke projectiles with the M18 fuze wrench. The time is set counter-clockwise using the M35 fuze

setter. The fuze is shipped between _ 93.5 to _ 95.5 and set on _ 98. for super-quick action. No booster. Expelling Charge.

M125 Booster can be attached to DPICM for self registration mode. (-28 pg. 7-35)

(Slides 94) M35 Fuze Setter: The M35 Fuze Setter is used to set the time on the M577 and M582 fuzes. The time is set counter-clockwise with the fuze setter. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-3)

(Slides 95) The M582 mechanical time and super-quick fuze (MTSQ) is the same fuze as the M577 except for the addition of a booster. The fuze contains a mechanical clockwork timing mechanism that may be set to function at any time from 2 to 2 seconds. The fuze is placed on HE and Smoke (WP) and is the only authorized MTSQ fuze for RAP. The M18 fuze wrench is utilized to secure the fuze. The fuze is shipped on _ 93.5 to _ 95.5 and set on _ 98. for super quick action. Bursting charge/tube explosive trains. The M582 has a superquick back-up; the fuze must impact within 3 seconds prior to the set fuze setting or the fuze may not function. (-28 pg. pg. 3-3)

PROXIMITY: (Commonly called VT or variable time)

(Slides 96) The M728 proximity fuze is an airburst fuze used against ground targets. The fuze contains a radar (Radio wave transmission) which begins measuring its height above the ground approximately 3 to 5.5 seconds prior to the set fuze setting. When any part of the radio wave is reflected to the fuze from the target, an interaction or doppler signal occurs between the reflected transmitted wave. When the doppler signal reaches a predetermined amplitude, an electronic switch activates the explosive train at 7 meters above the target. If the proximity mode does not function, the projectile will be detonated on impact by the PD backup element. Since the fuze setting only effects the arming time, settings are set only for whole second increments (with the M27 fuze setter). Fuze M728 is a long intrusion fuze which requires the removal of the supplementary charge before placing the fuze on the projectile. The PD setting is 9. and the fuze is shipped on 1.. It has a glass ampule that contains electrolyte that may break when dropped. Used on Bursting Charge explosive trains. (-28 pg. 7-121)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Remind students how to remove sup charge and how to insert fuze.

(Slides 97) Show M27 fuze setter and set a fuze. Reinforce that settings are to the whole second. (ST 6-5-19 pg. 3-34)

(Slides 98) The M732/A2 proximity fuze is a short intrusion VT fuze which does not require the removal of the supplementary charge when placed on HE projectiles. The fuze is also compatible with the M84 practice round. Warning: If the VT fuze is accidentally dropped, the electrolyte battery may break. Since battery life is so short, the fuze will probably not function as an airburst. Shipped on PD index mark and has a PD backup. Has a copper electrolyte ampule to increase reliability of fuze if dropped. Used on Bursting Charge explosive trains. The M732 was not able to keep pace with the growth in the severity of the ballistic environment. This caused some lots of M732 to be un-reliable due to in-bore resetting caused by the spin environment. The M732A2 fuze was designed as an improvement over the M732 fuze for compatibility with RAP projectiles, top zone ballistic environments, and more consistent height of burst. (-28 pg. 7-123,125)

(Slides 99) M762/M767 Electronic Time Fuzes - The M762 is used with 15mm and 155mm firing expelling charge explosive train projectiles. The fuze contains an electronic time system that may be set to function from .5 to 199.9 seconds. The time can be hand set so there is no need for fuze setters with this fuze. When set for PD, the fuze is armed at .45 seconds in flight. The M767 is similar to the M762, but has a booster charge. It is used with fragmentation (HE loaded) and burster type 15mm and 155 projectiles.

(Slides 1) M119 howitzer firing.

Battery XO's Handbook (ST 6-5-2):

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Discuss how to determine authorized projo-fuze-propellant combinations.

- Reference chapter 7.

- Discuss this chapter. It contains a listing of authorized

projectile, fuze, and propelling charges for every howitzer

in the current inventory (except M19A5/A6; Because the M198

cannon tube (M199) is very similar to the M284 cannon tube

on the M19A5/A6 it is accurate to use the portion dedicated

to the M198 to determine authorized sh/fz/chg combinations

for the M19A5/A6)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Have students refer to their XO’s Handbook and

give several examples:

M119: Can I fire? HE (M1), M67, M739 PD? ---Yes

M198: Can I fire? Ill (M485A1), M67, M582?--No

M19A3: Can I fire? HERA M549, M4A2, M577? ---No

M19A5/A6: Can I fire? M449A1, M23A1, M565? ----No

M119: Can I fire? ICM (M444), M67, M565? ---Yes

14. DA Form 4513. This form is used by the howitzer section to record fire commands, ammunition stock and standardized data. When the form is complete, it is used to compute remaining tube life on DA From 248-4. This form is completed with accuracy and neatness. The 4' X 8' DA Form LCS demo should be used during the hands-on ammo class. (FM 6-5, Page 7-8)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Briefly discuss DA Form 4513 & what it is used for.

The form is divided into four parts:

(1) The administrative data:

-Howitzer bumper number.

-Date of firing.

-Page number - at midnight start off with new page.

-Elements of the fire commands that are standardized.

(2) The Ammunition/Fuzes on hand has 3 lines:

-Line one is the type of ammo.

-Line two lists the lot designator.

-Line three lists the count, by type, of ammunition.

(3) The Fire Mission Data section records fire command elements and resupply and transfer of ammunition.

(4) The Ammunition Expended section keeps the ammunition count.

-All ammunition expended or received is recorded.

-Each round shot is circled and a cumulative count recorded.

-Upon receipt of EOM, total rounds fired is subtracted from the initial or latest total.

-Entries for supply or transfer are not circled.

The DA Form 4513 is turned in every 24 hours and should be kept by the unit in a dry secure place until the 28 4-4 is updated.

The students will get a class by the SNCO’s during the hands on portion of the class &/or in the field.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE: Inform students to read over this portion of the FM 6-5 before arriving for the hands on class.

Section III



Ask the students for questions.

a. Reinforce the importance of ammunition handling safety.

b. Summarize the propelling charge explosive train.

c. Discuss proper way to dispose of unused powder increments by burning.

d. Summarize the projectile explosive train.

e. Summarize the procedures for care, storage, and handling ammunition.

f. Summarize the purpose of fuzes.

g. Reinforce the use of DA Form 4513.


You must study and stay current on artillery ammunition. Whether you are an FDO, Plt leader, or a FSO with the maneuver force, knowledge of artillery ammunition is critical.

Section IV


The hands-on ammo class is in Bay 7, SuH where the students are shown how to set a fuze, ammo compatibility in XO’s Handbook, two step deflection method with howitzer, and DA FORM 4513.

Section V


The material is evaluated on the GC21 & GC25 Exams.